Part I

1. Ethnic Conflict Regulation I: Theoretical Overview and the Partition Option




O'Leary, B & John McGarry (eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation (New York & London: Routledge), pp. 1-40 - slc KDJ [Mac] [PC]

Smooha, S. and Theodor Hanf. 1996. 'Conflict-Regulation in Deeply Divided Societies,' in Smith & Hutchinson (eds), Ethnicity (Oxford: OUP), pp 326-333 - 305.8 ETH

Lieven, Anatol. 1999. 'Divide and Survive,' Prospect, May, pp. 22-27 – [PC]


Case: Bosnia


Kumar, Radha. 1997. Divide And Fall: Bosnia In The Annals Of Partition (London; New York: Verso), ch. 1 - 949.703 KUM


Podcasts (Quite Useful):

Peace and Ethnic Conflict Regulation

Stefan Wolff, Ethnic Conflict in Global Perspective


Federations, federacy and power

Failures of pluralistic federations



Ethnic Conflict Regulation: General

*Smooha, S. and Theodor Hanf. 1992. 'The diverse modes of conflict regulation in deeply divided societies,' in Smith, Anthony (ed), Ethnicity and Nationalism (Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill) – [NIS]

*McRae, Kenneth D. 1990. 'Theories of Power-Sharing and Conflict Management,' in Joseph V. Montville  (ed.). Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies (Lexington: Lexington Books) – [O/O]

Smith, David J. 2002. Ethnic Conflict Regulation in the New Europe (Basingstoke: Macmillan) – [NIS]

Ross, Marc and J. Rothman. 1999. Theory and Practice in Ethnic Conflict Management: theorizing success and failure (Basingstoke: Macmillan) – [NIS]

Schopflin, G. 1993. 'The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia,' in O'Leary, B & John McGarry (eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation (New York & London: Routledge), pp. 172-203  - slc KDJ [Mac] [PC]

O'Duffy, B. 1993. 'Containment or Regulation? The British approach to ethnic conflict in Northern Ireland,' in O'Leary, B & John McGarry (eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation (New York & London: Routledge), pp. 128-150  - slc KDJ [Mac] [PC]

Scherrer, C. 2002. Structural Prevention of Ethnic Violence (Basingstoke: Macmillan) – [NIS]

Safran, William. 1999. "Spatial and Functional Dimensions of Autonomy: Cross-National and Theoretical Perspectives." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, vol. 5, no. 3/4  - Reference only


*Laponce, Jean. 2000. 'Sovereignty and Referendum: in Defense of Territorial Revisionism,' Canadian Political Science Association meetings, Quebec City – [JNIS]

*Chapman, Thomas and Philip Roeder. 2007. 'Partition as a Solution to Wars of Nationalism: The Importance of Institutions', American Political Science Review, 101, 4: 677-91

*Kuperman, Alan. 2006. 'Power-Sharing or Partition: History Lessons for Keeping the Peace in Bosnia' in Innes, Michael, Bosnian Security After Dayton: New perspectives (Abingdon: Routledge)

*Buchanan, Allen. 2003. 'Secession' (moral dimensions). (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) <>

Shlaim, Avi. 1990. The Politics of Partition: King Abdullah, the Zionists, and Palestine, 1921-1951 (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press) – [NIS]

Stein, Eric. 1998. Czecho/Slovakia: Ethnic Conflict - Constitutional Fissure - Negotiated Breakup (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press) - 342.437029 STE

*Laponce, Jean. "National Self-Determination and Referendums: The Case for Territorial Revisionism." Nationalism & Ethnic Politics 7, no. 2 (2001): 33-56. - Reference only

*Kaufmann, Chaim. 1998. 'When All Else Fails: Ethnic Population Transfers and Partitions in the Twentieth Century,' International Security, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 120-56 - JSTOR

Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Vol. 5, Part 3&4 (Special Issue: Identity and Territorial Autonomy in Plural Societies), 1999. - JSTOR

*Hazleton, William A. 1998. "Ending Violent Ethnic Conflicts: Separation or Sharing as Options for Negotiation." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 4, no. 3: 102-119  - Reference only

Richmond, Oliver. 1999. 'Ethnonationalist Debates and International Peacemaking: The Case of Cyprus.' Nationalism & Ethnic Politics vol. 5, no. 2: 36-61- Reference only

Bose, S. 2002. Bosnia After Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention (Oxford: OUP) - 949.74203 BOS [PC]

O' Neill, W. 2001. Kosovo: An Unfinished Peace (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner) – [NIS]

Cousens, E. and C. Cater. 2001. Toward Peace in Bosnia: Implementing the Dayton Accords (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner) – [NIS]

Federalism and Cantonisation

Linz, Juan J., Alfred Stepan and Yogendra Yadav. 2005. ' “Nation State” or “State Nation”?: Conceptual Reflections and Some Spanish, Belgian and Indian Data', United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office occasional paper - available electronically

Bogdanor, Vernon. 1997. Forms of autonomy and the protection of minorities, Daedalus, Volume 126, Number 2, Spring 1997, pp. 65-87 – [JNIS]

*Kymlicka, Will. 1998. Is Federalism a Viable Alternative to Secession?, in Percy B. Lehning (ed.) Theories of Secession (London; New York: Routledge) - 320.54 THE

*Smith, Graham (ed.) 1995. Federalism. The Multiethnic Challenge (London; New York : Longman) - 321.02 FED

Telos, nº 91, Spring 1992. Special section on: Federalism. Articles by Robert D'Amico & Paul Piccone, G. L. Ulmen, Carl Schmitt, M. Rainer Lepsius, Ludger Kühnhardt, Wolfgang Palaver, Leopold Kohr. – [NIS]

Conversi, Daniele. 1998. The Basques, the Catalans, and Spain (London: Hurst), ch. 6 (The Spanish federalist tradition and the 1978 Constitution) - 320.540946 CON

*Scarritt, James R. and Shaheen Mozaffar. 1999. "Why Territorial Autonomy Is Not a Viable Option for Managing Ethnic Conflict in African Plural Societies." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 5, no. 3&4.  - Reference only

Murphy, Alexander B. 1997. Linguistic Regionalism and the Social Construction of Space in Belgium, in John Agnew (ed.), Political Geography: A Reader (London : Arnold), pp. 256-69 – [JNIS]

Henders, Susan J 1997. Cantonisation: historical paths to territorial autonomy for regional cultural communities, Nations and Nationalism, vol. 3, part 4, December 1997, pp. 521-40- INGENTA

Roeder, P. (1991). 'Soviet Federalism and Ethnic Mobilization,' World Politics, Vol. 43, pp. 196-232 - JSTOR

Murphy, Alexander B  1997 "Linguistic regionalism and the social construction of space in Belgium," in John Agnew (ed.) Political Geography: A Reader. (London/ New York: Edward Arnold), pp. 256-69 – [JNIS]


Essay Question

·        'Good fences make good neighbours' - A. Lieven. Comment with regard to the partition vs. federalism question.


2. Ethnic Conflict Regulation II: Consociationalism and Electoral Engineering



*Nagle, J. 2011. ' Constructing a Shared Public Identity in Ethnonationally Divided Societies: Comparing Consociational and Transformationist Perspectives', Nations and Nationalism

*Dixon, P. 2011. ' The Politics of Conflict: A Constructivist Critique of Consociational and Civil Society Theories,' Nations and Nationalism (critique of Nagle, same issue).

Woods, Eric, Robert Schertzer and Eric Kaufmann. 2012. 'Introduction: Ethno-national Conflict and its management,' in Eric Woods et. al, Nationalism and Conflict Management (Abingdon: Routledge), pp. 1-9


Podcasts (generally useful)

Electoral systems and consociationalism

N. Ireland, Good Friday and power sharing

Ten Years After the Good Friday Agreement (B. O'Leary and others)

Ottoman Millet system, religion and power sharing

Cyprus: the Settlement Process, Mehmet Ali Talat

Kirkuk and power sharing

O'Leary, B. How to Get out of Iraq with Integrity

Do power-sharing institutions work?

Balkans and power sharing

Iraq and power sharing



*Lijphart, Arend.1977. 'Consociational Democracy,' (Ch.2), in Arend Lijphart, Democracy in Plural Societies. A Comparative Exploration (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1977) pp. 25-52 - RBO [Lij]

*Norris, P. 2005. 'Ethnic pluralism and consociational democracy revisited', paper presented at the American Political Science Association meetings - available electronically

*McGarry, John and Brendan O'Leary. 2006. 'Consociational Theory, Northern Ireland's Conflict, and its Agreement 2. What Critics of Consociation Can Learn from Northern Ireland', Government and Opposition, Vol. 41, Issue 2, pp. 249-277

*Horowitz, Donald L. 1985 Ethnic Groups in Conflict, ch. 7: Ethnic Parties and Party Systems, pp. 291-364; and ch. 14: Ethnic Policy: The Constraints and the Opportunities, pp. 563-76   - 305.8 HOR – [PC]

*Wolff, Stefan. 2007. Conflict Resolution Between Power Sharing and Power Dividing, or Beyond?, Political Studies Review, Vol. 5, pp. 377-393 (review of three recent books on the subject)

*Lijphart, A. (1969). 'Consociational democracy,' World Politics, Vol. 21, pp. 207-225 - JSTOR

*Lustick, I. S. (1997). 'Lijphart, Lakatos, and Consociationalism,' World Politics, Vol. 50, pp. 88-117 - JSTOR

*Lustick, I. (1979). 'Stability in deeply divided societies: Consociationalism versus Control,' World Politics, Vol. 31, pp. 325-44 - JSTOR

Bogaards, M. 2003. ‘Electoral Choices for Divided Societies: Multi-Ethnic Parties and Constituency Pooling in Africa’, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 41(3), pp.59-80 – Reference only

Dixon, P. 2003. 'Con-Sociationalism: All Things to All People,' working paper – [JNIS]

B. O’Leary. 1997. ‘The Conservative Stewardship of Northern Ireland, 1979-97: Sound-bottomed Contradictions or Slow Learning’, Political Studies, vol. XLV - INGENTA

Wantchekon , L. 2002. 'Power-sharing Agreements as Political Risk-Sharing Contracts , ' unpublished paper , pp. 1-7- available electronically

Steiner, Jurg. 1990. 'Power-Sharing: Another Swiss 'Export Product'?' in Joseph V. Montville  (ed.) Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books), pp. 107-114 – [O/O]

*Bogaards, M. 1998. ‘The Favorable Factors for Consociational Democracy: A Review’, European Journal of Political Research, 33(4), pp.475-496 – Reference only

Noel, S.J.R. 1993. 'Canadian Responses to Ethnic Conflict: consociationalism, federalism and control,' in O'Leary, B & John McGarry (eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation (New York & London: Routledge), pp. 41-61 - slc KDJ [Mac] [PC]

Mauzy, Diane. 1993. 'Malay Political Hegemony and "coercive consociationalism" ' in O'Leary, B & John McGarry (eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation, (New York & London: Routledge) pp. 106-127 - slc KDJ [Mac] [PC]

Covell, Maureen. 1993. 'Belgium: the variability of ethnic relations,' in O'Leary, B. & John McGarry (eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation (New York & London: Routledge) pp. 275-95 - slc KDJ [Mac] [PC]

Njoku, Raphael Chijioke. "Consociationalism: Its Relevance for Nigeria." Nationalism & Ethnic Politics 5, no. 2 (1999), pp. 1-35- Reference only

Ejobowah, John Boye. 2000. 'Political Recognition of Ethnic Pluralism: Lessons from Nigeria.' Nationalism & Ethnic Politics 6, no. 3 (2000), pp. 1-18 - Reference only

Dixon, Paul. 1997. 'Consociationalism and the Northern Ireland Peace Process: The Glass Half Full or Half Empty.', Nationalism and Ethnic Politics Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 20-36  - Reference only

Electoral Engineering

*Horowitz, D. 2003. 'Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers,' Journal of Democracy, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 115-127 - Project Muse  

*Reilly, Benjamin. 2004. 'Electoral Systems and Conflict Management: Comparing STV And AV Systems,' working paper, for UCL Constitution Unit-ESRC Symposium, 'Is STV in Northern Ireland Part of the Problem?' 19 January – [JNIS]

Elliott, Sydney. 2004. 'The Single Transferable Vote, Proportionality and the Preferential Ballot in the Northern Ireland Assembly Elections of 2003,' working paper, for UCL Constitution Unit-ESRC Symposium, 'Is STV in Northern Ireland Part of the Problem?' 19 January – [JNIS]

Bogaards, M. 2000. ‘Crafting Competitive Party Systems: Electoral Laws and the Opposition in Africa,' Democratization, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 163-190 – [JNIS]

*Reilly, Ben. 2004. Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management (Cambridge: CUP) – [NIS]

Sisk, Timothy D. 1995. 'Electoral System Choice in South Africa: Implications for Intergroup Moderation.' Nationalism and Ethnic Politics Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 178-204  - Reference only


Essay Question

·        'Consociationalism divides people along ethnic lines and thus exacerbates ethnic conflict'. Do you agree or disagree?


3. Case Study: Britishness , Englishness and the UK Multiculturalism Debate



Gordon Brown, 'The Future of Britishness', speech to Fabian Society, 14 January 2006

Goodhart, David. 2006. 'Progressive Nationalism: Citizenship and the Left', Demos, 24 May

Goodhart, David. 2004. 'Is Britain Too Diverse' , Prospect

Meer, Nasar and Tariq Modood. 2009. 'The Multicultural State We're In: Muslims, 'Multiculture' and the 'Civic Re-Balancing' of British Multiculturalism', Political Studies, 57, 3 (Oct), pp. 473-97

Recommended I:

·                    Race body snubs 'un-British' work: The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) is blocking grants to ethnic minority projects that fail to promote "Britishness" and integration , ' BBC Saturday , 10 April , 2005 <>

·                    Bernard Crick v Kenan Malik: 'What Should Integration Mean in Britain Today?' JCWI Bulletin , Winter 2005/ 2006 <>

·                    ' Britain Rediscovered': Roundtable on Britishness with Gordon Brown , Prospect , April 2006 - Lexis-Nexis


·                    Modood , T. 2006. 'A Defence of Multiculturalism , ' Soundings , Issue 29 , April , pp. 62-71 [PC]


·                    Blunkett , Sir David. 2005. 'New Challenges for Race Equality and Community Cohesion in the 21st Century' , 7 July 2005 , Institute of Public Policy Research -

·                    Goodhart , D. 2006. 'It's Paranoia , Not Islamophobia , ' Guardian , 15 July 2006



Trevor Phillips discusses community cohesion

The New Politics of Identity - David Goodhart, Bhikhu Parekh, John Keane


Recommended II:

Parekh, Bhikhu. 2000. The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: the report of the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain (London: Profile Books) - Introduction & Conclusions  -  [PC]

Reaction to Parekh: 'No to rethink on British identity' , BBC News , Wednesday , 11 October , 2000 , 15:53 GMT 16:53


Modood , T. 2006. Multicultural Politics: Racism , Ethnicity and Muslims in Britain (University of Minnesota Press & Edinburgh University Press)

Modood , T. 2003. 'Muslims and the Politics of Difference' , Political Quarterly , vol. 74 (1) , pp. 100-115.

al-Maktabi. 2005. 'A letter to Trevor Phillips , Chair of the CRE' , Salaam

Hansen , Randall. 2000. Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain : the institutional origins of a multicultural nation ( Oxford : Oxford University Press)

Pilkington , Andrew. 2002. Racial Disadvantage and Ethnic Diversity in Britain ( Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan)

Modood , T. et al. 1997. Britain 's Ethnic Minorities: Diversity and Disadvantage ( London : Policy Studies Institute).

Modood , T. 2003. 'New Forms of Britishness: Post-Immigration Ethnicity and Hybridity in Britain ' , in R. Sackmann , B. Peters and T. Faist (eds) , Identity and Integration. Migrants in Western Europe ( London : Ashgate)

Mason , D. (ed.) 2003. Explaining Ethnic Differences (ESRC and The Policy Press)

Anwar , Muhammed , Patrick Roach and Ranjitt Sondhi (eds). 2000. From Legislation to Integration?: Race Relations in Britain (migration , minorities and citizenship) ( Basingstoke : MacMillan)

Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All (UK Runnymede Trust , 1998)

Multiculturalism: UK Runnymede Trust website: <>


Goodhart, David. 2006. 'Progressive Nationalism: Citizenship and the Left', Demos, 24 May

Wolfe, Alan and Jytte Klausen. 2000. 'Other People,' Prospect, December, pp. 28-33 - [PC]

Bhatt, Ashish. 2000. 'Race and Reality,' Prospect, May, pp. 65-66 - [PC]

Phillips , Trevor. 2005. ‘Multiculturalism’s legacy is “have a nice day” racism’ , Guardian , 28.5.

Alibhai-Brown , Yasmin. 2000. After Multiculturalism ( London : The Foreign Policy Centre)

Alibhai-Brown , Yasmin. 1999. True Colours: Public Attitudes To Multiculturalism and The Role of Government ( London : Institute for Public Policy Research)


Colley , Linda. 1992. Britons. Forging the Nation 1707-1837 ( New Haven and London : Yale University Press)

' Britain Rediscovered': Roundtable on Britishness with Gordon Brown , Prospect , April 2006

Gilroy , Paul. 2005. After Empire: melancholia or convivial culture? ( London ; New York : Routledge)

Gilroy , Paul. "There ain’t no black in the Union Jack": the cultural politics of race and nation ( London : Hutchison)


Kumar , Krishan. 2003. The Making of English National Identity ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press)

Colls , R. 2005. Identity of England ( Oxford : Oxford University Press)

Scruton , R. 2000. England : An Elegy ( London : Chatto and Windus)

Hart , C. (ed). 2003. Approaches to Englishness: Past , Present and Future (U.Central England Health & Social Care Research Centre)

Linsell , Tony. 2000. Our Englishness (Anglo-Saxon Books)


Essay Question

·        What are the key axes of debate between proponents of Multiculturalism and proponents of integration in Britain today?