Social Cleavages and Generational Replacement: The Demography of Value Changes


Sobolewska, M. and R. Ford (2020). Brexitland: Identity, Diversity and the Reshaping of British Politics, Cambridge University Press., ch 3 (“Divided over Diversity: Identity Conservatives and Identity Liberals.”)

Bell, Torsten, and Laura Gardiner (2019). “My Generation, Baby: The Politics of Age in Brexit Britain.” The Political Quarterly 90: 128-141.

Anja Neundorf and Kaat Smets (2017). “Political Socialization and the Making of Citizens,” Oxford Handbooks Online:

Duffy, Bobby (2021). Generations: Does When You’re Born Shape Who You Are?,  Basic Books, Introduction.

Polarization and Realignment

Mason, Liliana. (2018). Uncivil agreement: How politics became our identity, University of Chicago Press.

Klein, E. (2020). Why We’re Polarized, Profile Books.

Ford, Robert, and Will Jennings (2020). “The changing cleavage politics of Western Europe.” Annual Review of Political Science 23: 295-314.

Goodhart, D. (2017). The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics, Oxford University Press.

Hobolt, Sara B., et al. (2020). “Divided by the vote: Affective polarization in the wake of the Brexit referendum.” British Journal of Political Science: 1-18.

Abramowitz, A. I. (2018). The great alignment: Race, party transformation, and the rise of Donald Trump, Yale University Press.

Piketty, Thomas. “Brahmin left vs merchant right: rising inequality and the changing structure of political conflict.” WID. world Working Paper 7 (2018).

Hetherington, M. and J. Weiler (2018). Prius Or Pickup?: How the Answers to Four Simple Questions Explain America’s Great Divide, Houghton Mifflin.

Generational Replacement and Value Changes

Fisher, Patrick (2020). “Generational Replacement and the Impending Transformation of the American Electorate.” Politics & Policy 48(1): 38-68.

Grasso, Maria Teresa, Stephen Farrall, Emily Gray, Colin Hay, and Will Jennings (2019). “Thatcher’s children, Blair’s babies, political socialization and trickle-down value change: An age, period and cohort analysis.” British Journal of Political Science 49(1): 17-36.

Henn, Matt, Ben Oldfield, and James Hart (2018). “Postmaterialism and young people’s political participation in a time of austerity.” The British Journal of Sociology 69(3): 712-737.

Inglehart, Ronald (1971). “The silent revolution in Europe: Intergenerational change in post-industrial societies.” The American Political Science Review 65(4): 991-1017.

This is Inglehart’s original statement of the postmaterialism thesis. Over the past half century, he has repeatedly returned to it:

  • Inglehart, Ronald (1981). “Post-materialism in an environment of insecurity.” The American Political Science Review 75(4): 880-900.
  • Abramson, Paul R., and Ronald Inglehart (1986). “Generational replacement and value change in six West European societies.” American Journal of Political Science 30(1): 1-25.
  • Inglehart, Ronald (2008) “Changing values among western publics from 1970 to 2006.” West European Politics 31(1-2): 130-146.
  • Inglehart, Ronald, and Pippa Norris (2017). “Trump and the populist authoritarian parties: the silent revolution in reverse.” Perspectives on Politics 15(2): 443-454.

Janmaat, Jan G. and Avril Keating (2019). “Are today’s youth more tolerant? Trends in tolerance among young people in Britain.” Ethnicities 19(1): 44-65.

Intergenerational Inequality

Pickard, Susan (2019). “Age war as the new class war? Contemporary representations of intergenerational inequity.” Journal of Social Policy 48(2): 369-386.

Roberts, Ken (2020) “Generation equity and inequity: gilded and jilted generations in Britain since 1945.” Journal of Youth Studies.

Howker, Ed, and Shiv Malik (2010). Jilted Generation: How Britain has Bankrupted its Youth (London: Icon Books).

Willetts, David (2010). The Pinch: How the Baby Boomers Took Their Children’s Future (London: Atlantic Books).

Chrisp, Joe, and Nick Pearce (2019). “Grey Power: Towards a Political Economy of Older Voters in the UK.” The Political Quarterly 90(4): 743-756.

Berry, Craig (2012). “Young people and the ageing electorate: breaking the unwritten rule of representative democracy.” Parliamentary Affairs 67(3): 708-725.

  • See a response by Davidson, Scott. “Older voters: a phantom tyranny of numbers? A response to Berry.” Parliamentary Affairs 67(3): 726-738.

Essay Question

  • How useful is generational replacement as a theory of value change over time?

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